A trust region method is not really a replacement for a line-search optimisation, the methods are complementary.
A line-search optimiser would usually proceed by taking a trial step in the direction of the (preconditioned) forces, and then evaluating the new energies and forces (and possibly stresses) at that trial configuration. Using this new information, the optimiser would then calculate a better step length to use. Of course, you will never get the exact optimal step, so a better step can always be found; how do you know whether your step is "good enough", or whether you should keep trying for a better step? This is where the Wolfe conditions come in. The Wolfe conditions do not describe an exact optimiser, they are precisely designed to help your inexact optimiser to converge efficiently to the solution. Evaluating energies and gradients is computationally demanding, and we don't want to do it more than we have to.
Given our line-search method, why might me want to use a trust region approach? Well, what if we start a very long way from our minimum, and perhaps our preconditioner is not very good. We could find that our initial trial step takes us to a completely different region of phase space, with a different local minimum to the one we want.
For example, suppose we have a ferromagnetic material, but the atoms are too far apart. Our trial step could move the atoms too close together, and this could cause some of the spins to be suppressed, pushing the material to a nonmagnetic state; or some of the spins might even flip, making an antiferromagnetic phase. The next optimisation step will move the atoms further apart again, but they might stay in this new magnetic state, and not the ferromagnetic state we wanted.
This problem occurred because our trial step moved the atoms outside the region of space that our (preconditioned) optimiser modelled reliably; we moved out of the "trust region". Trust region methods estimate the region of configuration space in which our optimiser can be trusted, and if the trial step would take us out of that region, they reduce the trial step to take us just to the boundary of the trust region. This stops the method taking you into completely different regions of configuration space accidentally.
Once the new step has been taken, the new energies and forces are included in the optimiser model (e.g. the BFGS Hessian) and the trust region is recalculated. In this way, the atoms are allowed to move into a different state if that is genuinely the low energy, zero-force solution, but they won't do it just by accidentally moving too far -- or that's the idea, anyway!
Of course, if your trial step stays within the trust region, then the usual line-search optimisation can be used to find a good enough step to take.