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Doping is an efficient strategy to narrow the bandgap of wide-bandgap metal oxides, in order to harvest more light. Let's consider the mechanism by which doping reduces the bandgap of a metal oxide through the introduction of doping levels above the valence band maximum (VBM) of the metal oxide. This mechanism can give rise to two different types of doping levels:

  1. Localized doping levels that do not merge with the VBM, as shown in Fig. 1a
  2. Delocalized doping levels that merge apparently with the VBM, as shown in Fig. 1b

enter image description here

What are the possible advantages of the second type of doping levels as compared to the first one for photocatalytic applications? The one advantage I can think of is that the localized doping levels can act as charge recombination centers, what are other possible advantages?

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    $\begingroup$ Could you provide a source of what you call a delocalized level, this term is certainly not commonly used and the Fig. 1b itself is questioning. Nevertheless, the gap between the level and the VB and this level gives the efficency of the doping it might be better with a non localised level as the transition to this level will be easier, however, the recombinaison will be affected as you said. $\endgroup$
    – M06-2x
    Commented Jul 2, 2023 at 10:25

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