I was trying to study quantum dots of ZnO. But I'm pretty new to creating and passivating 0-dimensional particles. Is it always necessary to passivate the free surface of the quantum dot? Regarding the studies conducted, I would like to know how ligands affect the electronic properties of the quantum dot. But for that I need a reference hence would prefer the non-passivated state. If such a state can't be achieved how would one approach the problem of creating a reference for comparison.
Thanks in Advance :)