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When a material forms a crack (say, for example, a disk that is getting old, or a fresh bread where force is applied to), on the microscopic/atomic level, atomic bonds break and forces are overcome. What computational methods are there to simulate such behaviour?

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The package LAMMPS, that implements Molecular Dynamics, has an example of a crack propagating in a 2D solid. Here is the input they used. A complete mpeg video of the result can be downloaded by clicking here, which shows the crack propagation.

enter image description here

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