Quasicrystals show repeating motifs or patterns but are not periodic. And yet their Fourier transforms invariably demonstrate a pattern of sharp peaks revealing that there is still an underlying... something.
Generally if one works hard one can show that a quasicrystal proper of $n$ dimensions is actually a manifestation of periodic lattice of at least $n+1$ dimensions. For example, some 3D quasicrystals with 10 and 12 fold symmetry have been shown to come from 5 dimensional lattices sliced at "funny" (irrational) angles.
The actual atomic locations of the quasicrystal in our world will often slightly offset themselves to minimize energy (cf. phason) and so back-solving for the higher dimensional mathematical lattice from a given real-world quasicrystal atomic positions is a fun mathematical challenge.
Question: If one wants to propose that an observed structure1 could be a 2D quasicrystal these days, what would be considered as the necessary and sufficient conditions? Is "if it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck" sufficient (i.e. repeating motifs or patterns that are not periodic + strong, sharp peaks in a Fourier transform) or must one actually solve for the higher dimensional lattice to which it is associated first?
1In order to make this harder but more useful to me, let us stipulate that the Fourier transform has sixfold symmetry and not ten- or twelve-fold. Thus we can't use the shortcut of "there aren't any 2D Bravais lattices with this rotational symmetry, therefore it's a quasicrystal Q.E.D."
An example of a 2D quasicrystal with 6-fold symmetry would be twisted bilayer graphene at say several degrees but not 30° where it becomes 12-fold. (For more on the twelvefold 30° case Dodecagonal bilayer graphene quasicrystal and its approximants).
note: There's a potentially quite helpful discussion in Twisted Graphene Bilayers and Quasicrystals: A Cut and Projection Approach.
A simple but convenient illustration of how a 1D quasicrystal originates from a 2D regular lattice, from Hyperuniformity of quasicrystals
Projection of lattice points to create the 1D point set of interest. The red dots lie in the physical space X.