Questions tagged [density-functional-theory]

For questions about simulations using Density Functional Theory.

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39
votes
4answers
449 views

What is the closest thing we have to “the” universal density functional?

It is understood that finding "the" universal functional is an NP-complete problem. However, progressively better functionals have been constructed decade after decade and fitted to more and more ...
36
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13answers
1k views

What are some recent developments in density functional theory?

In the book Materials Modelling Using Density Functional Theory: Properties and Predictions by Feliciano Giustino, a timeline of milestones in DFT was given for achievements between 1964 and 1996: $$\...
32
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5answers
566 views

Why do we have so many DFT codes (softwares)? Are they redundant?

Lejaeghere et. al studied reproducibility of DFT codes (softwares) by comparing 15 different codes employing 40 different potentials. The study concluded that most codes agree very well, with ...
32
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1answer
1k views

Was Walter Kohn wrong about this?

In Kohn's Nobel Lecture, he claimed that: "In general the many-electron wave function $\Psi(\mathbf{r}_1,\ldots,\mathbf{r}_N)$ for a system of $N$ electrons is not a legitimate scientific concept,...
29
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1answer
187 views

What correlation effects are included in DFT?

In wavefunction methods the accuracy of the description of a system of electrons can be improved systematically starting from a reference, usually a Hartree-Fock wavefunction. This difference between ...
28
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2answers
625 views

Is there any DFT code or software that has the option to use this exact exchange-correlation energy functional?

Most of the conventional DFT codes or software use LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, PBE, etc. exchange-correlation functionals, but I'm wondering if there is any DFT code or software that uses the new generation ...
25
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1answer
294 views

Approximate equivalence table between Pople's basis sets and Jensen's DFT optimized polarization consistent basis sets (pcseg-n)

At first I posted this question in chemistry.stackexchange.com, before materials.stackexchange.com was launched in beta. As it went unaswered, I'm giving a try here. I have some calculations results ...
25
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2answers
200 views

What are the best functionals for transition metal compounds?

Some properties of transition metal compounds can be influenced by static correlation, relativistic effects, and, in some cases, close-lying electronic states could result in difficulties in SCF ...
24
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5answers
1k views

What are the types of DFT?

Similar to: What are the types of charge analysis?, What are the types of bond orders?, and What are some recent developments in density functional theory?, I would like to ask: What are the different ...
24
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2answers
159 views

Why does orbital-free DFT scale linearly with system size?

In answering another question here (Is there any relevant DFT formalism apart from the Kohn-Sham approach?), I came across numerous statements that Orbital-Free DFT should scale linearly with system ...
24
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2answers
200 views

What are the positives and negatives of periodic DFT codes that don't use plane-wave basis sets?

Most periodic density functional theory (DFT) codes use plane-wave basis sets in conjunction with three-dimensional periodic boundary conditions. In contrast, for molecular systems of finite size, ...
23
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3answers
1k views

How big should a supercell be in phonon calculations?

Is 2x2x2 enough, or is larger needed? I know that a convergence test must be carried out, but increasing supercell size enormously increases computational time, and I am using the Python program ...
23
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3answers
243 views

What is the largest material that has been studied using density functional theory?

Quantum-chemical calculations are quite expensive with a cost that scales greatly with the number of atoms in the system. What is the largest material that has been modeled using density functional ...
22
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5answers
351 views

When and Why does Density Functional Theory (DFT) fail?

Every method has its strengths and weaknesses. For instance, a strength of DFT is that is has HF like speeds, but can also account for electron-correlation and this is a pretty big feature since ...
22
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4answers
187 views

Available methods and codes for materials discovery / crystal structure prediction?

There are many open databases and projects that allow you to access computed crystal structures of experimentally known compounds, registered in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). These ...
22
votes
1answer
155 views

What are good ways to reduce computing time when working with large systems in VASP?

I know that parallelization is an important factor, however, I wanted to know if there are any other methods of reducing computing time when dealing with large systems without sacrificing accuracy. ...
22
votes
2answers
218 views

What are the different ways of calculating dispersion constants?

There are many different dispersion corrections out there. The most famous is D3 [1] (and the new D4 [2]), but there's probably other approaches too. The dispersion energy can be written as: $$ E_{\...
22
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1answer
112 views

How do you calculate the “true” chemical potential in classical density functional theory?

In classical density functional theory, one traditionally calculates the chemical potential by taking the variational derivative, \begin{equation} \mu_{i} = \frac{\delta F}{\delta \rho_{i}} \end{...
21
votes
4answers
1k views

How to write my own density functional theory (DFT) code in Python?

I am a DFT user and at some point in the future, I would like to write my own DFT code in Python to help gain a deeper understanding of DFT. As mentioned in a previous answer people have written their ...
21
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2answers
434 views

Create a new DFT functional from experimental data

This is my first time here and I think you can help me. I would like to try (just for fun) to create a new DFT functional starting from experimental data. Do you have any manual, procedure or ...
21
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2answers
153 views

In DFT, while studying a system using different exchange-correlation functional approximations, are we expected to check convergence for each method?

As pointed out in a previous question each time you start a new DFT calculation, it is recommended to do a convergence test. If I am studying a system using different exchange correlation functional ...
20
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3answers
876 views

Given that Kohn-Sham DFT is strictly a ground-state method (at 0 K), how is it sufficient to describe materials in real-life applications?

Kohn-Sham DFT appears to be so popular even though it is strictly a ground-state method - all calculations are done at 0 K. How then, is it so popular when describing materials that have real-life ...
20
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4answers
258 views

Difficult cases for converging Kohn-Sham SCF calculations

In a recent article by Woods et. al.[1] a couple of methods for converging ground-state Kohn-Sham DFT calculations are reviewed and compared. In their test suite they give plenty of examples for badly ...
20
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2answers
474 views

Meaning of atomic positional parameters

I am trying to model some materials with DFT, so I intended to start out with the structure. However, some texts that present XRD data, use a term called atomic positional parameter. I can't seem to ...
20
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1answer
83 views

What are some materials discovered from first-principles calculations that ended up being incorporated in a commercial product?

High-throughput computational screening, inverse materials design, and advances in machine learning have really accelerated the pace in which we can identify novel materials for a wide range of ...
20
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1answer
110 views

What is the importance of electron interaction on dielectric response of crystals?

After obtaining the Kohn-Sham orbitals from a plane-wave-based self-consistent-field calculation, the dipole matrix elements could be calculated in order to determine electro-optical properties such ...
19
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4answers
1k views

What are the pitfalls for new users of DFT?

This question is inspired from a post in another SE. Many users these days use density functional theory codes as 'black boxes' and hence its natural to expect that they would have made many mistakes ...
19
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4answers
229 views

What is the status of graphics processing units in plane-wave DFT?

A few years back, I performed a few calculations of metallic slabs using VASP and the Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE). I'm by no means an expert, but I noticed that the calculations were very CPU ...
19
votes
3answers
201 views

What is the appropriate way of determining a value for the Hubbard-like potential U for LDA+U / GGA+U calculations?

It is known that neither LDA or GGA correctly account for the strong on-site Coulomb interaction of localized electrons[1]. A cost-effective way of correcting this is by using a Hubbard-like term $U$. ...
19
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2answers
1k views

How to “get my feet wet” in Density Functional Theory by simulating a water molecule using Python

I just saw I am a beginner in Density Functional Theory. What are some resources that could help me to learn the basics? and it reminded me that few years ago I'd asked How can I calculate the charge ...
19
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2answers
117 views

Norm-Conserving or Ultrasoft, which pseudopotential to choose?

Ultrasoft pseudopotential (USPP), in general, requires a lower energy-cutoff to the plane waves when compared to Norm-Conserving ones (NC). On the other hand (at least with Quantum ESPRESSO) the ...
19
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3answers
164 views

Physical/Intuitive picture for DFT that all motions and pair correlations in a many-electron system are contained in the total electron density alone

Quoting Becke [1] Density-functional theory (DFT) is a subtle, seductive, provocative business. Its basic premise, that all the intricate motions and pair correlations in a many-electron system are ...
19
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3answers
179 views

Hexagonal lattice volume EOS fit

I have a little problem concerning hexagonal volume fitting using VASP. I have followed these steps: Relax the structure from a given volume using ISIF =4 Copy ...
19
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1answer
107 views

Cancellation of Errors in density functional approximations or any wavefunction based methods

I am curious to find references for when is it TRUE that the error cancellation in approximate methods like DFT/MP2/etc. are valid and when they fall apart. For example: My understanding is (please ...
18
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3answers
262 views

Are there any online course/video lectures available on Density functional theory?

Please mention good online video lectures on theoretical foundations and practical implementation of DFT.
18
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3answers
238 views

How to do periodic DFT calculations using Quantum ESPRESSO?

I have only done quantum mechanical computations using non-periodic wavefunctions. I'd like to try to periodic-wavefunction density functional theory. Quantum ESPRESSO seems like a good package ...
18
votes
2answers
130 views

Calculating binding energy between two systems

Regarding the calculation of binding energy of molecular absorption on graphene, for which this has been discussed before, the process of calculating $E_{AB}$ is fairly straight forward, i.e., it is ...
18
votes
2answers
206 views

Semi-infinite surfaces for adsorption: a valid approach?

I'm currently trying to surface reaction of small molecules on metal oxides in VASP. Several papers I've read have approached surface energy calculations in a variety of ways. I first began looking at ...
18
votes
1answer
76 views

Are there any High-Throughput studies that aim to discover High Tc superconductors?

High-Throughput materials modeling based on Density Functional Theory has become very popular recently. If, for example, we search "High-Throughput Perovskites" in Google Scholar, we get over ~14,000 ...
18
votes
1answer
76 views

Database or repository with values for the Hubbard potential U?

The Materials Project and other materials databases have a nice periodic table on their home page that allows you to search for compounds. For some materials, they give an empirical $U$ value used to ...
18
votes
1answer
331 views

Mathematical expression of SCAN (Strongly Constrained and Appropriately Normed) constraints in DFT

(This question is originally posted on physics stackexchange, but someone suggested me to post on this site, so there you go) I'm compiling the mathematical expression of SCAN (Strongly Constrained ...
18
votes
1answer
92 views

How established is density functional theory as a tool in drug design?

Motivated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, I am wondering how established density functional theory (DFT) is as a tool/technique in drug design. Drug molecules come in a wide range of sizes from ...
17
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5answers
841 views

Tools for high-throughput DFT studies?

High-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to screen for new materials and conduct fundamental research in materials science and materials innovation. It involves ...
17
votes
3answers
211 views

What are the core numerical routines used in density functional theory?

It looks to me to that many of the things one would do within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) ultimately boil down to solving a generalized eigenvalue problem $Av = \lambda Bv$ where $...
17
votes
2answers
913 views

Logic of published geometry optimization results without checking phonons

I see that in many papers where optimization results presented, they do not mention phonons and their force convergence criterion is 0.01 eV/A. Can you publish a result like that? And is not this ...
17
votes
2answers
66 views

What are some common techniques for building multiscale models for materials?

Most, if not all, material systems are multiscale in nature that are described by different physics at different length and time scales, ranging from density functional theory (DFT) to phase field ...
17
votes
2answers
113 views

Is there any relevant DFT formalism apart from the Kohn-Sham approach?

I wonder if all DFT codes are based on the Kohn-Sham formalism?. If other methods are available, what are their scopes?
17
votes
1answer
116 views

Why is the band structure of a supercell more dense than for simple cell?

In order to do DFT calculations of metallic alloys, the start point is a supercell, whose atoms are changed to match the desired stoichiometry. Gold and Silver, for example, both have FCC structure. ...
17
votes
1answer
139 views

What are some approaches to modeling charged point defects in materials?

From what I understand, one major issue in modeling charged point defects in materials is the existence of artificial interactions between charged defects and their periodic images. Even when using ...
17
votes
3answers
125 views

How trustworthy is the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential and how does it perform across basis sets?

When modeling solid-state materials and particularly semiconductors, one must go beyond LDA and GGA. One alternative is to use hybrid functionals or the $GW$ method. However, this can be very ...

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