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This question is more about engineering than materials modeling, but I will try to supply a partial answer and let others decide if it isn't. You may get a better answer at Physics.SE. My first thought would be that hydraulic power is a straightforward improvement over pneumatic since there is less energy wasted due to the compression of air. But if we ...

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Photochemical "Muscles" All motors require energy, and you mentioned that heat maybe problematic because of heat loss. So you might be interested in photochemistry. These reactions can be made to be highly photon (i.e. energy) efficient and directional. Feringa Motors A promising technology for artificial muscles are those based off the light-...

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A research group lead by Prof. Ray Baughman, from the University of Texas at Dallas, uses a yarn of carbon nanotubes. From the abstract of one of its works1: We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, ...

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Hasel actuators can contact and expand fast and use veggtable oil and plastic. Here is a video on how the work https://youtu.be/Yi8tUJowAuo

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Pneumatic "muscles" Basically, these involve an inflatable tube (essentially a long balloon) surrounded by a tube of fiber mesh that is anchored to the surfaces that force will be exerted upon. When the inflatable tube is filled with air using a pneumatic pump, it expands until it reaches the mesh. This puts the mesh under a tensile force around ...

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I should start by saying that I am no expert in MoS$_2$, so this answer is my guess from looking at the reference you provide, and would be happy if someone corrects me. The general things to keep in mind when looking at such band structures are: If the system has time reversal symmetry, then if there is an electron with quantum numbers $(\mathbf{k},\... 5 To make a start in answering this question, here is a review on "Computational predictions of energy materials using DFT" by Jain et al. (2016). The bar for inclusion was: examples where theoretical prediction has led to the experimental discovery of a new material or exposed an important technological facet of a known material. Table 1 contains ... 5 solid circles represent the positions of atoms in the twinned region; these black circles represents the only atoms that are present there, whereas dashed circles are their original positions that after twinning are no more occupied on account of displacement. These black atoms are displaced from their original positions on account of twinning and hence form ... 4 Digital Image Correlation is used a few different ways in mechanical testing. On larger samples, it can be used as a digital extensometer to measure the overall strain in the sample. For ductile samples, it can also show a map of strain fields and how those fields grow fastest around the point of failure. This is especially useful for a heterogeneous sample, ... 2 There has indeed been quite a lot of research in this area, as is readily uncovered by searching for "improving the strength of graphene" in your search engine of choice; for example, this 2017 review https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079642517300968. Graphene is often highlighted as having high mechanical strength, but this ... 2 The product/material that you are considering to engineer, has already been engineered and been successful in the market. Three such examples are these ones which I found in a Google Images search, where you can see many more. From a materials engineering perspective, no new material needs to be designed, since the device can be constructed using materials ... 2 I had the same doubt regarding the validity of my calculations. In some cases, it was astonishing how certain well-known quantities like the bandgap of Silicon could be easily underestimated by DFT. But as seen in most research papers on DFT calculations, there is a difference in experimental and predicted values. This depends on various factors including ... 1 ProfM's argument is absolutely right. Here I support a more detailed explanation based on first-principles calculations. The spin-resolved band structure of monolayer MoS$_2$with the consideration of spin-orbit coupling is shown below: You can first find the two split valence bands around$K$and$-K$valleys. In particular, spin-$z\$ is a good quantum ...

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